IP / Subnet Addressing

  IP stands for Internet Protocol and is a part of the TCP/IP protocol. It determines the best route for information to travel from one computer to another. IP addresses help identify each machine on a network. Each IP is a 32-bit unique number in a 4-byte format divided into 4 8-bit parts. Each part is indicated by a period in between, thus defining a number with a minimum value of and a maximum value of  
  There are two parts to an IP address: the part that identifies the network and the part that identifies the host ID. This is determined by the class of the IP address. There are five differnent classes of IP addresses, each with a specific purpose. Class A IP addresses have more nodes and less hosts, such as for large corporations. The first octet (the first part of the IP address, such as 24.x.x.x) is a number between 1 and 126. Class B IP addresses are between 128 and 191. Class C IP addresses are for small companies where there are less than 255 hosts. The first octet is higher, being around 192 to 223. Class D IP addresses are between 224 and 239. Class E IP addresses are experimental, and they are between 240 and 255.  
  IP addressing is only a concern for machines that must exist on the Internet. For internal networking, any IP address can be used. However, it would help if unpublished or reserved IP addresses are used. There are three predefined unpublished IP ranges that will never be viewed on the Internet: 10.x.x.x, 172.16.x.x, and 192.168.x.x. There are also some restrictions associated with IP addressing. An IP of is not permitted since it refers to "this network." is the "localhost," so pinging it makes for a loopback test. represents a network broadcast, but this will only work on internal networks. The Internet restricts using it. When setting up networks, the usual starting IP is x.x.x.1, and it ends with x.x.x.255.  
  Subnetting IP addresses helps divide a network logically into smaller networks within the same domain. Most of the time, the subnet is defined as a subnet mask, where an address similar to an IP address is used. The most common subnet mask is The subnet masks vary based on how many individual subnets you desire and how many nodes there are per subnet. The default subnet masks are as follows: 1. Class A - (0 subnets, 4,194,302 nodes), 2. Class B - (0 subnets, 65,534 nodes), and 3. Class C - (0 subnets, 254 nodes). The subnet masks vary based on how many individual subnets you desire and how many nodes there are per subnet. As you can see, the default ones set your network for 0 subnets (i.e. this is the only network). If, for example, you desire 4 subnets with 62 nodes each, you should pick  

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